What is systemd?
Systemd (Stylized ‘systemd’) is process one on Linux distributions that have selected it as their default init system. It is designed specifically with the Linux kernel API in mind.
Being a replacement for SysVinit (the previous init system inherited from UNIX System V and BSD,) and the first process executed in user space, systemd is extremely important.
Currently systemd is not the default in many systems, but the number of adopters is growing, and soon server OSs such as Debian and RHEL will be using it. At present you would find systemd in default installs of the below, to name a few:
systemd is vastly different in terms of the commands that you might use on a day to day basis. As a result of this I am going to list some common changes below.
All of this testing was performed on an Arch system, so your mileage may vary.
On older systems, you might use commands similar to the following when working with services:
# /etc/init.d/ntpd start
# service ntpd start
# chkconfig ntpd on
On systemd systems, your commands will be slightly different.
Starting and Stopping
To start a service, you would use the following:
# systemctl start ntpd
To stop a service, the opposite:
# systemctl stop ntpd
Enabling and Disabling
Obviously starting and stopping services is good, but what if we want to start them at boot?
# systemctl enable ntpd
This command actually runs the following:
# ln -s '/usr/lib/systemd/system/ntpd.service' '/etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/ntpd.service'
To disable you would use:
# systemctl disable ntpd
Again, this is a link to:
# rm '/etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/ntpd.service'
Working with Logging
While you can, and a lot of people do, simply install syslog to most systemd systems it is recommended that you learn to use the tool ‘journalctl’ to manage and view logs.
If you want to view all of your logs, then the following command will work, but might be verbose:
If you wanted to view from only a specific date, you could use:
# journalctl --since="2014-05-07"
Specifically kernel logs? That’s easy too:
# journalctl -k
Or maybe you want to follow the log, as it logs!
# journalctl -f
But hang on a moment, you know the exact PID that you want to look at, how brilliant are you?! (The PID selected here is systemd.)
# journalctl _PID=1
What’s that? You don’t know the PID? But you know the unit name? No problem!
# journatlctl -u sshd
Still not enough information? Get more verbosity!
# journalctl -x
Working with Networking
Let’s say you need to add an IP to a host, because it’s brand new and doesn’t have anything yet. Thankfully, you’re stood in front of it at a prompt
What do you do?
Adding a Static IP Addresses
For this we’re going to use a file, as it’s fairly easy.
# cd /etc/netctl
# touch eth0
Once we’ve created the file, we will add the following using our favourite editor (vim,) to configure an IPv4 address:
Description='Our primary connection' Interface=eth0 Connection=ethernet IP=static Address=('192.168.6.10/24') Gateway='192.168.6.1' DNS=('220.127.116.11')
We can start this interface with the ‘netctl’ command:
# netctl start eth0
And again, enable it in a similar way:
# netctl enable eth0
Adding a Dynamic IP Address
Maybe you’re at home, and your systemd box is something like XBMC? Maybe you don’t need a static address, and dynamic is fine. Well there’s good news, you would populate your ‘eth0′ file with something like this:
Description='Our DHCP Interface' Interface=eth0 Connection=ethernet IP=dhcp
That’s much shorter, and it uses the same ‘netctl’ commands to start and enable!
Using New Tools
Managing your Hostname
This sort of management is done by the command ‘hostnamectl’ such as:
# hostnamectl status
If you wanted to set your hostname, it couldn’t be simpler:
# hostnamectl set-hostname pi.dmcip.com
This will also persist across reboots!
Something we’d all like to be able to do…
# timedatectl status
This will give you a slew of facts, similar to the below:
Local time: Wed 2014-05-07 06:49:36 MDT Universal time: Wed 2014-05-07 12:49:36 UTC RTC time: n/a Time zone: America/Denver (MDT, -0600) NTP enabled: yes NTP synchronized: no RTC in local TZ: no DST active: yes Last DST change: DST began at Sun 2014-03-09 01:59:59 MST Sun 2014-03-09 03:00:00 MDT Next DST change: DST ends (the clock jumps one hour backwards) at Sun 2014-11-02 01:59:59 MDT Sun 2014-11-02 01:00:00 MST
Obviously this happens to be completely wrong, so let’s fix it!
We first need to find out the timezones available to us:
# timedatectl list-timezones
When we have the one we know is right, we use the following:
# timedatectl set-timezone Europe/London
Run date again, or timedatectl status, and you will see your changes!